Cultivation and use of Eleutherococcus spiny
Eleutherococcus spiny (Eleutherococcus senticosus)
Due to their biologically active compounds and their effect on the human body, the plants of Eleutherococcus prickly and lure are often called younger cousins of the widely known ginseng.
Have eleutherococcus spiny because of the thorns (thick on the trunk and thin, but very prickly on the leaves) there are also popular nicknames - "devil tree" and "devil bush". His homeland is our Far East (Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories, Amur and Sakhalin Regions), as well as Northeast China, North Korea and Japan. Experts consider him a close relative. ginseng, Eleutherococcus even often grows with it in the neighborhood.
The plant chooses valleys, mountain slopes, coniferous and mixed forests for its residence, forming large, impenetrable thickets. It is a low-branched shrub with a height of 1.5-2.5 m. It has cylindrical, rigid rhizomes (up to 1.5 cm thick), located horizontally in the upper soil layer (shallow from the surface); the bark of the rhizome is pinkish-white (the smell of rhizomes is strong, pleasant, the taste is hot and spicy).
Young shoots are abundantly planted with numerous thin, long brittle light brown, obliquely directed downward thorns; in adult specimens, there are ten or more erect stems. Light green, shiny leaves are arranged on long petioles; flowers - small odorous, separate and bisexual, collected in globular umbrellas. Eleutherococcus blooms in July - in the first half of August, inedible, black fruits ripen in September (they crumble very quickly after ripening).
The fruit is a spherical or oblong drupe. Eleutherococcus is a moisture-loving and light-loving plant, prefers open places (at the same time, it is shade-resistant, for example, on my site it quite successfully grows in the penumbra of a low cherry) and loose fertile soils of a neutral reaction. It is frost-resistant (withstands up to -30? C and above).
Cultivation of eleutherococcus spiny
Landing. When planting in a permanent place, weeds are selected from well-dug (to a depth of 25-30 cm) soil, compost or well-rotted manure (up to 2 buckets per 1 m2) is placed in the planting pit. In the future, if necessary, water the plants, after which it is advisable to feed them with a weak solution of manure (up to 10 liters per 1 m2). With the onset of permanent frosts, the plantings are mulched with peat chips (with a layer 2-3 cm thick). During the growing season 3-4 times it is necessary to superficially loosen the soil, while removing all weeds. There should be at least two specimens of Eleutherococcus on the garden plot, since some individuals can only bear unisexual flowers.
Eleutherococcus spiny is propagated by seeds and vegetatively (by shoots, rhizomes and offspring). However, it is difficult to propagate it even with freshly harvested seeds, since they are characterized by very slow germination. When planted in the fall in open ground, the seeds pass naturally stratification... Seedlings do not appear earlier than the second spring, and sometimes even in the third year. It is better to transfer seedlings obtained from seeds to a permanent place at two or three years of age; they bloom in the 4-5th year of life.
Reproduction of Eleutherococcus vegetatively is a more effective way than seeds. It is preferable to hold it in April or autumn. To prepare the site, the soil is dug up, carefully breaking up clods, removing weeds and leveling its surface. To do this, it is better to use rhizomes 12-15 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm thick. You can take rhizome shoots and green cuttings (at the end of June - first half of July). The distance between plants should be at least 1 m. The flowering of a plant obtained by vegetative means usually occurs in the third year of life.
In the middle lane of the Non-Black Earth Zone of Russia, pests - insects and lemongrass diseases - have not yet been noted, but in some years in winter, mice can cause noticeable damage to it.
The medicinal properties of Eleutherococcus prickly
Scientists have long paid attention to this very beautiful shrub, but at first they did not consider it from a chemical-pharmacological point of view. For therapeutic purposes rhizomes and roots of Eleutherococcus prickly begin to harvest from 4-5 years of age, in late autumn or early spring after warming up the soil. To do this, the above-ground mass of the plant is cut down, the roots are carefully dug in and turned out of the soil.
The rhizome is shaken off the remains of the soil, dried in the open air, and dead and damaged parts are removed. Raw materials are dried in a warm, well-ventilated room. To speed up the drying process, large roots can be pre-cut into pieces. Dried roots 8-10 cm in size are placed in linen bags and stored in a dry place. The leaves of the plant have basically the same effect on the body as the root system.
Rhizomes contain many biologically active compounds - glycosides (eleutherosides), coumarins, sterols and lignans, as well as essential oils, resins, gums, starch, lipids, pectin substances, etc. An important quality of Eleutherococcus prickly is its tonic, stimulating and adaptive effect.
If ginseng is rare in nature, it is an expensive and difficult to cultivate plant, then Siberian ginseng is characterized by relatively good adaptability and renewability when grown. In this regard, experts believe that Eleutherococcus may be one of the most promising substitutes for ginseng.
In medicine, a liquid extract from the roots of Eleutherococcus prickly is used (in a 1: 1 ratio in 40% alcohol). The drug is stored in a cool, dark place. At home, for the manufacture of alcoholic tincture, 150-200 g of dried crushed roots of Eleutherococcus prickly are infused for 15 days in 1 liter of 40% alcohol, daily shaking the contents of the container. The use of even homemade tincture is desirable after consultation with the doctor.
The extract, as well as tincture from the underground mass of the plant, have a beneficial effect in the treatment of atherosclerosis, radiation injuries, reduce elevated blood sugar levels, alleviate stress, and have an anti-cancer effect. And healthy people can use these drugs when overworked or, if necessary, to perform work in unfavorable conditions for the body.
However, large and excessive doses of the extract can cause insomnia, irritability and sensitivity. The extract is contraindicated in hypertension, high temperature, during the acute period of infectious diseases. The essential oil extracted from rhizomes is used in perfumery, as well as in the confectionery industry for the production of sweets and soft drinks.
Read part 2. Cultivation and healing properties of high bait →
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Pushkin
Types of Eleutherococcus
This plant belongs to the Araliaceae family and has up to 30 varieties. As a rule, we are talking about shrubs or woody plants. At the same time, gardeners pay special attention to two types: sessile-flowered Eleutherococcus and its brother, nicknamed prickly.
Let's start with the latter. Spiny Eleutherococcus is the leader in the presence of nutrients, and they are located in the root of the plant. According to the calculations of phytotherapists, according to the richness of its composition, spiny eleutherococcus creates a triumvirate with rhodiola and ginseng! This holy trinity is truly cancer-fighting. In addition to benefits, it brings a "thorn" and aesthetic pleasure.
This shrub grows in Japan, Korea and China. In Russia, it can be found in the Far East. In the wild, thorny shrubs require very moist soil. It grows under trees, feeling great in the soil rich in natural fertilizers. Closer to the south, Eleutherococcus is found not only under trees, it is found in floodplains of rivers or in the mountains.
The height of such Eleutherococcus can be 1.5 meters, or maybe twice as high. It looks interesting: from the stem there are many straight shoots of yellow color, covered with small thorns looking down. It is said that this is why the popular name for thorny Eleutherococcus sounds like wild pepper or devil's bush. The older the plant becomes, the more its character "softens": there are fewer thorns on it, and the branches themselves turn from yellow to pleasant light gray.
The very useful root looks like a cylinder, while it is very branched and does not hide deep into the ground. For the normal functioning of the plant, it is enough that the root is in 30 centimeters of soil.
- Leaves. The leaves of the thorny bush are incredibly beautiful. The branches on which the leaves are located are very long. And the leaves themselves look very bizarre. Absolute smoothness and rich green "outside" is replaced by a lighter tone and light pubescence "from the inside", from the bottom of the leaf. The shape of the leaves is not simple: these are 5 obovate plates.
- Flowers. The flowers of the fancy “thorns” also look incredibly touching. Long pedicels end with inflorescences of delicate lilac or yellowish shades. The flowers themselves, collected in umbrellas, are very small, and their color seems to be diluted, washed - not saturated, but as if diluted.
Eleutherococcus spiny blooms at the end of summer, closer to August, and by the end of the first autumn month, you can admire the fruits of a shiny black color and slightly oblong shape.
Eleutherococcus sessile-flowered can be considered a real giant among shrubs, because its height can exceed 3 m! This plant looks like its thorny counterpart (except that it grows taller), but it may not acquire thorns.
- Stem sometimes it gets by with a completely insignificant number of thorns, and sometimes it is absolutely smooth.
- There is a difference in the leaves too : the number of records is not necessarily five, but ranges from 3 to 5.
- Flowers They are similar to Eleutherococcus spiny only in size and shape - they are small, but their color is completely different - a rather dark, saturated brown shade. Yes, and umbrellas in the sessile-flowered Eleutherococcus cannot be found, but only their halves.
The rest is the similarity between these plants as between siblings.
Cultivation and reproduction of Eleutherococcus sessile flowering
Eleutherococcus sessile-flowered seeds reproduce, which germinate in 1-2 years without stratification. Seeds can be stratified in the refrigerator by placing them there for 1.5-2 months in wet sand. Can be propagated by cuttings and suckers.
Prefers sufficiently moist, permeable, nutritious soil. Shade-tolerant, but achieves better development with sufficient lighting. Winter-hardy, withstands winters with frosts down to -40 ° С
Good honey plant. Eleutherococcus sessile-flowered is decorative with its original leaves. Recommended for group and single plantings, as an undergrowth in forest parks and parks, for non-cut hedges, sometimes for the creation of difficult hedges. It is believed to have been in culture since 1800.
Eleutherococcus spiny - a very interesting plant, there is a rumor about it that its roots can replace the famous ginseng in their properties. This plant is also called a free berry, and the people for its thorns call this shrub "devil's bush". In the wild, Eleutherococcus spiny can be found in our country only in the Far East - in the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Territories, on South Sakhalin and in the Amur Region. Outside of Russia, the habitat of this plant is Korea, Northeast China and Japan.
The height of Eleutherococcus spiny usually does not exceed 3 m, although sometimes it grows up to 5 meters. This light gray shrub is strewn with thorny thorns downward on its shoots. The plant has a highly branched rhizome with a diameter of up to 2 cm, from which numerous roots extend, the total length of which can reach 30 meters.
The leaf blades of Eleutherococcus spiny palmate-five-part, are on petioles about 10 cm long.Plants look especially beautiful in September-October, when fruits ripen, which, against the background of dark green leaves, look like garlands of black shiny balls that have a pleasant smell. Non-edible fruits, up to 1 cm in diameter, contain 5 seeds inside.
Free berry seeds are crescent-like in shape, yellow in color, up to 8.5 mm in size with a fine-meshed surface. Biologically active substances called eleutherosides have been identified in the roots of this unusual plant. In addition to them, the roots of this plant contain essential oil, pectins, resins, wax, gum, carotenoids, which are also biologically active substances.
After studying this plant, scientists came to the conclusion that all the components of Eleutherococcus prickly have properties useful for humans, that is, the medicinal properties of Eleutherococcus prickly, which traditional medicine have used for centuries, have been scientifically confirmed.
Locals have long used the powder from the stems and the decoction of the roots of this plant for external wound healing, as well as in the treatment of weeping wounds and abscesses. An infusion of roots is used as an antidote for poisoning. Traditional medicine uses infusion and decoction of free berry in the treatment of severe nervous diseases, rheumatic heart disease, atherosclerosis.
Today, drugs for cancer are made from the roots of Eleutherococcus prickly. Chinese physicians treat nephritis with this plant. In our country, various preparations are also made from Eleutherococcus prickly, which in their properties are close to the well-known drugs from the ginseng root.
So "Eleutherococcus liquid extract" after a single use increases the efficiency of the body, and with daily use after a while, its tonic effect is manifested and overall well-being improves. This drug has an important adaptogenic property, that is, it increases the body's adaptability to unfavorable conditions (overheating or cooling, the action of toxic substances, radiation, etc.).
This medicinal drug lowers blood sugar. Eleutherococcus prickly in various forms is also used in animal husbandry to increase sexual activity and productivity, in perfumery, in the production of alcoholic and non-alcoholic tonic drinks.
The Eleutherococcus spiny plant can also be grown in household plots, the plant is unpretentious and hardy. A moist and sun-warmed soil is suitable for a plant. Seeds germinate only in the second year, because they have an underdeveloped embryo.
To accelerate germination, you need to do seed stratification. Sowing seeds is carried out in the spring in the beds to a depth of 2-3 cm. In the first year, young seedlings need light shading. The soil for planting is prepared from a conventional organic-mineral mixture. Plants do not need special care.
Planting a plant eleutherococcus spiny to your personal plot, we will receive an original ornamental plant and a solid replenishment of medicinal products in a home first-aid kit.
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Video - Eleutherococcus spiny
The value of the chemical composition of thorns
The concentration of nutrients in the raw thorns depends on the region, but their list remains unchanged.
- tannins, which eliminate fungal and bacterial infections, accelerate the epithelization of wounds, dry weeping ulcers and wounds
- organic acids with pronounced antioxidant properties, which stimulate the motility of the "lazy intestine", have antiparasitic, diuretic and diaphoretic effects
- sugar (glucase, sucrose, fructose)
- pectins, they eliminate dysbacteriosis, promote the adsorption of heavy metals, the destruction of pathogenic microflora
- essential oil and other aromatic substances
- vitamins, including "A", "C", "E", "B1", "B2", "K", "P", "PP" normalize the processes of hematopoiesis
- macro and microelements, including: potassium, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, cobalt, iodine, manganese, chromium and others, they are involved in enzymatic processes, in the normalization of cellular respiration.
Attention! Pits of thorns must not be swallowed. The glycoside amygdalin, which is in the bones, decomposes during the work of the stomach and intestines to the formation of hydrocyanic acid, which is a strong poison!
Vegetative parts thorns, including roots, bark, leaves, young shoots contain:
Vegetative parts have the following healing effect on the body as part of decoctions and tinctures:
- anti-inflammatory, they ensure good digestion
Blackthorn flowers as part of teas and decoctions, they have a therapeutic effect on the body, including:
- expectorant (for respiratory diseases)
- anti-anemic effect
- normalizes the biochemical composition of the blood.
The prepared drink is a good remedy for colds, autumn infections associated with diseases of the throat and bronchi.
- When using thorns at home for the purpose of treatment, be sure to consult with a doctor thorns, although rarely, but is contraindicated for allergy sufferers
- Berries can be eaten by children and pregnant women
- Fresh berries with a "weak stomach" provoke gastrointestinal upset
- The broth is filtered and the bones are removed; the broth cannot be stored together with the fruits of the bones in the broth form poisonous components that cause poisoning
- The fruits stain the tooth enamel in a bluish tint, which lasts for several days, gradually washing off, does not cause obvious harm to the enamel, but outwardly is not aesthetic.
Eleutherococcus (Eleutherococcus) is a thorny shrub or tree that belongs to the Araliaceae family. The berry plant is widespread in the southeast of Siberia, as well as in the western and central parts of China. People call the plant "wild pepper", "free berry", "devil bush", "Siberian ginseng" and refer to garden or medicinal crops. Among the 30 different species, the most famous is Eleutherococcus spiny.
Properties of Eleutherococcus tincture
Eleutherococcus extract has a tonic and tonic effect on the body. Due to the content in the tincture of many vitamins, glucose, fatty acids, essential oils and other useful substances, the dormant forces of all human organs are mobilized, returning him to an active life:
- increases immunity and resistance to diseases caused by various viruses and bacteria
- the level of cholesterol and sugar in the blood decreases, fats are broken down
- all organs and systems are quickly restored after illness or overwork
- the nervous system works better, stresses, fatigue are leveled, irritability and fatigue decrease
- increased efficiency, brain activity, improved mood and well-being
- libido and faded reproductive functions awaken, which is especially noticeable in men.